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Category Archives: Automotive

Make Solar Powered Car

You must think about design of the solar car. Here are a few items of interest to go along with the design you come up with:

  • Cost: You don’t need to spend a fortune.
  • Weight: Heavy solar vehicles will reduce speed and distance so keep your solar car light.
  • Materials: If you can’t find the exact material needed you can always improvise.
  • Durability: Will your final products start to crumble under the pressure of distance and velocity?
  • The track or runway: You don’t need a track but you should consider using a smooth surface to run your vehicle on.


– Solar cells and Panels
– 2 1.5V AA batteries
– Pulleys
– Gears
– Wheels
– Electric hobby motor
– Wire
– Elastics
– Fishing line
– Skewers or Chop Stix
– Metal coat hangers
– Straws
– Light-weight recyclable materials
– Alligator clip test leads
– Duct tape
– Corrugated cardboard


For your first try with you solar vehicle it’s recommended to use two panels of solar cells. Each panel will consist of two cells. The panels will have leads through the ends of the panels for a direct circuit connection. The solar cells are extremely fragile so be sure to handle them with caution and care. It can be expensive to replace solar panels because of neglect of the material.

Do not cut the backing of the solar panels. If you do you can crack the cells and this will reduce efficiency of the panel. You want to squeeze every bit of energy from your panels so don’t cut the backing.   The solar cells can be tested and is recommended that each cell have 0.5V


A standard DC hobby motor can be used to mount to the frame of your solar car. You can usually get a motor from a RC hoppy shop for around twenty bucks. The motors should be rated to 1.5-3 V


Think of the materials you would like to use for your first solar powered car. Remember you need to use lightweight materials.

  1. Use recyclable material to construct your solar powered car. The lighter the frame and materials the better your car will utilize solar energy.
  2. After creating the framework for your solar vehicle you can mount the solar panels in a direction to maximize energy. This means you should have your panels directly face the sun.
  3. Next, connect the panels from the circuit leads to the hobby motor. 26 gauge wire will work just fine.
  4. Here’s the tricky part. Connecting the motor to the wheels on your solar vehicle. Your pulleys must be installed exactly the same distance of each other or your car will veer left or right. Make sure that the pulleys are also lined up correctly. Precise installation of the pulley system will create the right amount of tension for the elastics or fishing line. If you have gears installed, you must consider the gear ratio, corresponding to the motor so you don’t strip the internal gears of the motor. A smaller pulley/gear on the motor and a larger pulley/gear on the axle will give you the most performance durability.

Right Gear For The Sport

Many other sports have specific protective gear that everyone accepts as normal. Touch football in the back yard is one thing; high school, college or professional football is another. These players wouldn’t dream of going out onto that field without their protective gear.

As motorcyclists, we should feel the same way about our sport. We should be taking every precaution we can to avoid injury and, if something does happen, to minimize the damage to our bodies. It really bothers me to see someone on a motorcycle wearing shorts, a t-shirt and flip-flops.

Although this is about safety, there is one other aspect that does affect us as motorcyclists. When a rider is severely injured or killed in an accident, it reflects on us and the public perception of motorcycling. It also affects our insurance rates. If that death or those injuries could have been avoided by wearing protective gear, it just makes things unnecessarily difficult for the rest of us.

I don’t think I have a right to refuse to use safety precautions and, then, expect you to pay the bills when my injuries make it impossible for me to pay. I personally know of a young motorcyclist injured in his early 20’s who will spend the rest of his natural life in a nursing home – at our expense! His brain was crushed because he wasn’t wearing a helmet.

OK. Get off the soapbox and back to the subject!

Although I’m approaching the use of protective gear from the standpoint of reducing injuries once an accident has happened, it can also help you avoid getting into an accident in the first place.

Getting cold or wet can cause you to change your focus from operating the motorcycle safely to your own discomfort. That can seriously affect your reaction times if someone else does something stupid in front of you. The extra level of comfort good protective gear provides is also important to your safety.

Here, in Arizona, about the only car windshields that don’t have dings on them are brand new. What if that rock or other piece of debris hits you in the bare face or the throat? The shock and the pain can cause you to lose control of the bike. I have had rocks ricochet off my helmet that could easily have killed me on the spot. Imagine something like that hitting an unprotected hand or knee.

I have suddenly run into a swarm of flies, gnats or mosquito’s that I couldn’t see from a distance. Without the face shield on my helmet, I would have had those things in my mouth, nose and eyes. At 60 miles per hour, that’s no fun.

When an accident does happen, you want the most protection you can have – NOW! We know what the helmet does. A good motorcycle jacket with padding in all the right places will protect elbows, shoulders and back. Motorcycle chaps or pants can protect your knees and, with some designs, the hip bones. Gloves can keep the skin from being ripped off your hands. Boots offer protection for your feet and ankles.

Good motorcycle gear has padding in the places where you are most likely to suffer serious injuries if thrown from your motorcycle. It also offers a thick layer of protection for your skin. If you do land on the road surface and slide several feet, the cement or asphalt has to grind through that layer before your skin is even touched. That’s not likely to happen at normal road speeds.

Side Cars For Motorcycles

Attaching a side car changes the aerodynamics of the bike. It no longer rides like a two wheeled vehicle. The forces that run a motorcycle like the centripetal and centrifugal do not come to play. The drag coefficient also increases. The maneuverability of the bike as a two wheeled vehicle is lost. The bike then rides more like a car, but then it’s not a car. Its feel is different. So in case you have been riding motorcycles without a side car you will have to learn how to ride a bike with one attached to it. This is because the bike now has 3 wheels and cutting corners and moving through traffic will require some expertise.

Side cars for motorcycles have been in existence since the turn of the last century. WJ Graham of England was the first man to get the patent in 1903.The twenties and thirties was the hay day period and a lot many were manufactured.This continued in full force during the war years (39-45) and were popular with the Armed forces. The Germans particularly used the side car with telling effect and mounted a machine gun on it. The motorcyclist rode the bike and the machine gunner looked all around with the machine gun ready to fire. This type of motorcycle with its attachment with a machine gun was one of the main stays of the German army in occupied Europe.It really did terrorize the populace. The Germans attached these innovations to their BMW, Zundapp and other machines. However the war’s end saw the relative demise of this invention. And after the fifties its usage became restricted. Presently a side car is a rarity and only a few enthusiasts buy it.

Though the attached car is getting out of fashion it must be remembered that during the war years the it had a life of its own. German and soviet bikes(The Ural) used a differential gear to improve the ability of the bike to negotiate all types of terrain. Differential gear permits power from the engine to be transmitted to the wheel of the attached car thereby helping the machine move along easily on an uneven road.

The car attached to a bike is usually made of steel and is fixed to the body of the motorcycle. Most cars can be decoupled from the bike or attached in a reasonable short time. The side car provides a seat for one passenger and can come with an optional wind shield.One of the adoptions also allows a side car to be used to carry cargo. Some of them may have also have a soft removable top. But all these contraptions take away the thrill of a motorcycle and that’s the reason this contraption is almost out of fashion these days. Remember once a side car is attached to a bike the dynamics of the bike change and it drives more like a car. Attaching it to the bike also affects the speed which is greatly reduced. Thus the bike becomes unsuitable for cross country rides or intercity drives. Even in cities the usage of the bike becomes restricted in case the streets are crowded or narrow. Of course the stability is greater and chance of the bike falling on the side is almost zero. It could be a good help for older people and persons who cannot afford a car.

Smart Car Engine

To transfer this power to the rear wheels is a 5 speed automated manual single dry clutch plate transmission. The gear ratios are for first gear -3.308, second is -1.913, third is -1.258, fourth is -0.943 and fifth gear is -0.707. The reverse gear ratio is -3.231 and the final drive in the rear end is at -4.529.

The front axle suspension has a lower wishbone with McPherson Struts and an anti roll bar. The rear axle suspension is DeDoin with coil springs and telescopic shock absorbers.

The ABS braking system is of dual circuit design with tandem servo assistance. The front brakes are 11 inch discs and the rears are 8 inch drums. This system also has traction control and electronic brake assistance.

This is the breakdown of not only the Smart car engine, but the other main mechanical components that are all standard on this fuel efficient car.

Tips Drive Stick Shift Car

First, when getting into a stick shift car, it is commonplace to have the shifter placed into a gear when the engine is shut off. To start the car, place your foot on the clutch all the way down, then turn the ignition. Once the engine starts, while keeping your foot on the clutch, place the shifter in neutral. Once the shifter is in neutral, you can release the clutch. At this point, keep your foot on the brake and release any handbrake.

Once starting your car, the next step is pulling out onto the street or other motorway where you intend to drive. If you are going to go straight, then keep your foot on the brake, press the clutch, and put your car into first gear. To get the car moving, give the car a little gas–about 2000 rpm is usually good enough. Once you do this, slowly release the clutch about a third of the way to get the car to move. To move a little at a time, release the clutch a little, and then press it again. If you would like to move in reverse, then place your car in reverse gear and follow the same steps.

When you make your way onto the street, the next step is actually putting your car in gear and driving. Like the previous paragraph, the first step is to press the clutch and put the car into first gear. Once you have shifted into first gear, press the gas–again, 2000 rpm is usually good. Once you have given the car a little gas, then gradually ease off the clutch. When you do this, you will notice that the rpms will start to drop and the car will begin to move forward. Once the rpms reach about 1000 or when you feel the engine struggle, gently give the car more gas. Continue to do this until the clutch is fully released. Now you are in first gear and can drive around!

Once you are driving, changing gears is easy. When you reach a rpm that is high enough, simply depress the clutch and shift the car into the next gear. Once you are in the next gear, release the clutch again. If you are slowing down, you should use a similar process. You should depress the clutch, but this time you need to shift into a lower gear. If you ever come to a complete stop, you simply depress the clutch and shift the car into neutral. Now you’re driving stick! Its that easy!

Change Gear Fluid

Place your floor jack at the correct position, preferably in the middle of rear axle under the main housing. Elevate until you have enough room to comfortably get under the vehicle on your creeper. Place your jack stands under the rear axle, one on each side of main housing. Make sure they are set high enough and placed correctly in order to give you plenty of room to maneuver on your creeper.

Most rear housing drains are located exactly on the bottom of the main housing; some are located slightly higher and are always located below the fill hole. You’ll need a crescent wrench or an Allen wrench to remove drain plug. Turn the plug counter clockwise until it’s removed and grease will begin to drain. When the housing is empty, pay particular attention to the findings in the bottom of the drain pan. Look for evidence of metal filings. Metal filings indicate some wear on the gears but if there isn’t an excessive amount, don’t worry about it. All gears produce small flakey filings.

Replace your drain plug and make sure you get it tight. Your fill plug will be located on either side of the main housing and will require the same tool for removal. Remove the plug, using a small funnel or small suction gun. Replace the old grease with the new, but do not overfill. Usually, you can fill until it starts to run out of the fill hole. Then, replace your plug quickly. Clean your tools and remove the jack stands. This is a safe and cost-efficient way of changing your gear fluid and maintaining your vehicle.

Car Gear Levers

First gear will provide the greatest force at the driving wheel and is almost always the gear that you will select to get the car in motion. As you speed up, you will need to change up in the gears. Each one will give you less gear force but more road speed. The top gear provides you with the least force, but the widest range of speeds.

Most modern cars will have five speeds, but many newer cars or heavier vehicles will have more. As well as the general gears, there will also be a reverse one. When the car is in neutral, no gear will be engaged.
The clutch links the engine to the road wheels through the gearbox and allows the gradual connection of the engine to the wheels.

Four wheel drive vehicles may have a double gearbox, one will be the standard gears and the other will be a high and low-ratio range gearbox. This effectively will double the number of gears that are available to around 8 or 10. When going off road it is normally the low range that should be used.

Most cars have the same gearing system. The first four normally form an ‘H’ while the fifth and reverse gear form an additional ‘I’. Changing from fifth to reverse is usually protected, and the lever automatically springs back into the neutral position when no gear is engaged. This tendency of the gear stick to line up with particular gears is known as ‘Bias’. The third and the fourth gears are normally lined up.

Four speed gearboxes have the gears in an ‘H’, with reverse gear extended on the left or the right.

Although in the beginning changing the gears can seem a little difficult, in time it comes second nature, you should always remember don’t look down at the gear lever. When learning, try to have a mental picture of the gear layout, this will always allow you to change gear correctly and without looking down.

All about Custom Street Cars

The speed of the car is determined by its acceleration RPM and top speed. Other factors like weight design do matter in making a car zoom through roads. Let’s have a look at the features of some of the best and the fastest street cars of the world.

1996 Ferrari f 50

1996 Ferrari f 50 is one of the fastest street cars in the world today. This car accelerates from a speed of 0-60 miles in a heart throbbing 3.7 seconds. Its acceleration from 0-100 miles takes at about just 8 seconds. Wonder if this car passes by you. The maximum speed of this Ferrari f 50 is 207 miles per hour.

The car is definitely meant to leave the time behind. Buy the one and see your friends and neighbors dying to get a ride.

This is one of its type cars. It is placed at a price of whopping $480,000. Well money is never a problem for those who want the best and own the best. This car weighs 2710 pounds and covers 15-23 miles in a single gallon of gas. With 6 speed manual gear transmission you can enjoy the pulsating speed of this car. The engine of the car is at about 4700 cc and it boosts a power of incredible 513 bhp @8500 rpm.

So what are you waiting for, don’t you want this super fast street car for yourself.

1997 McLaren F1

If you are crazy about speed and want a machine which rides the clouds McLaren F1 is among the best option that you can chose. This one of its kind car has an amazing acceleration of 0-60 miles per hour in just 3.3 seconds, and 0-100 miles per hour in mere 7.7 seconds. This machine is all set to pump your adrenalin to the max.

This car is priced at a sky soaring $890,000. Despite a very high price of this car, people fall in love with it. This car consists of a 6 speed manual gear transmission which would take you through as if you were riding clouds. This car produces a power of 627 bhp and its maximum speed 231 miles per hour. With an engine of 6064 cc this car gives a mileage of 12 mile per gallon of gas.

2003 Bugatti 16/4 Veyron

A word of caution: Driving 2003 Bugatti 16/4 Veyron can make you leave everything behind. With an acceleration of 0-60 miles per in just 3 seconds, this car is one of the best in the category of the fastest cars available in the world today. It is priced at a rate of $800,000. This car gives you the power of 1001 bhp with a sold engine of 7993 cc. The maximum speed of this car touches a mind blowing 252 miles per hour. Now that is what you call a real fast car. The car gives you the advantage to zoom ahead of all the other cars with a combination of a 7-speed manual gear transmission system.

Maintenance Gear Pumps

Sometimes, gear pump bearing composes of a specially designed surface layer of PTFE formulations and is specifically applied for the high PV value. It can be used in medium, high-pressure gear pump, ram pump, and vane pumps and so on. As it is without lead, it makes the bearing lubricating condition cleaner, and in accordance with environmental request.

Although there are many other applications that use gear pumps, the most common example is the hydraulic gear pump that is used in the transmissions of many vehicles. Since it is so commonly used on vehicles, the proper maintenance becomes rather necessary because good maintenance tips might be able to save you the considerable expense.

The most important component you should pay attention to is the gear pump bearing because defective bearings allow the gears in the pump to shift position in the chamber, rather than remaining straight and true. Thus, you should check them to ensure their proper performance. And if pump bearings have some problems, you have to remove them by using a bearing puller.

Besides, you should check the teeth in the gears for signs of wear and tear. A brand new gear pump usually ships with a clearance of about 0.005 to 0.007 inches between the teeth of the gears and the chamber wall. This clearance is just enough for a piece of very thin wrapping paper. Therefore, you can use this type of paper to check the clearance between the gear teeth. If the paper slides in and out between the teeth too easily, then the gears have been worn due to scrubbing or poor lubrication.

Information of Exotic Sports Cars

Lets face it most of us will never own one of them, most of us will never even get to drive or sit in an exotic sports car. We just have to make so with editions of the latest `Top Gear`, to satisfy our desire for these unattainable exotic beasts. Also the crushing weight of the Insurance Premium is enough to put you off, even if you could afford one. But to the brave, lucky and probably rich few who are in the position to purchase one, i say `good on you` quickly followed by `can i have a go!` At sometime or another we all see an exotic sports car that we desire, we can dream.

For the vast majority of us, we are resolved to hire an exotic sports car in order to fulfill our boy hood dreams. Finding the price, insurance and did i forget the ever rising price of fuel to run these gas guzzlers just to much to afford. But it does not stop us wanting one, dreaming of one, and doing the lottery every week in the hope of getting one. But thats what makes them Exotic, and makes them stand alone from a sports car. If everyone had one, they just would not be exotic now would they? I want one im sure you do too, exotic sports cars don’t you just love them. Right im off to watch top gear!